Luo Zhihua1, Zhou Hongbo1, Su Xiangdong1, Li Yongxin2, Peng Yonghe2, Tang Shiquan3
1 Henan University of Arts and Science, Changde, 415000: 2 Shenzhen Sunsmile Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, 518057: 3 Guangming Oversea Chinese Foodstuff Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, 518000
One hundred and ten piglets were used in an experimental period of 15 days to study the effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) feed additives on the growth performance of weaning piglets. With a dietary supplementation of AMPs feed additives at the level 3%. It is indicated that the AMPs feed additives could significantly increase (P<0.05) the feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion rate and effectively prevent (P<0.05) the diarrhea rate, and it is suggested that the AMPs feed additives would be used to strongly improve the growth performance and healthy level of weaning piglets.
Keywords: antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), growth performance, weaned piglets, feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion rate, diarrhea rate
The diarrhea problems that happened in post-weaning would seriously inhibit the growth performance of piglets, and cause economic loss in the pig farms. Many farms usually used the antibiotics in the feed to control the piglet diarrhea and other diseases, but this antibiotics prevention would bring some serious issues such as drug residue, drug resistance and other unsafe problems etc. Being aware of these issues, it was necessary to seek for a safe additive to substitute for the antibiotics. The discovery of the AMPs could provide a new way to solve the residue issues due to the unique mode of action in the innate immune defense, and will have a great potential and prospect in the future (Hancook et al., 1998; Zasloff et al., 2002; Hancook et al., 2008). The purpose of this report was to evaluate the effects of AMPS feed additive on the growth performance and diarrhea in piglets.
Materials and Methods
The creep feed was the Artificial milk 102 provided by the Shenzhen Anyou company. The AMPs feed additive was the Tideasy provided by Shenzhen Sunsmile Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
One hundred and ten weaning piglets were randomly allocated to 2 groups with 55 piglets per group according to the weight and healthy. The group were the experiment and control group respectively. the piglets of the control group were fed the Artificial milk 102 as the basal diet, and the others of the experiment group were fed the diet supplemented with Tideasy 3 kg per ton on the basal diet. All the piglets were fed the basal diet for 2 days of transition. Body weight were recorded after the transition. The trail was carried out in the Jingkou pig farm (Guangming Oversea Food Co., Ltd, Shenzhen) for the period of 15 days (Mar 13, 2009 – Mar 28, 2009).
Feed intake and health condition were recorded daily, all the piglets were weighted in the 1st and 15th days. Average daily gain and feed intake were calculated. Both of the feces, number of diarrhea piglets and the duration time were recorded daily, the diarrhea rate (diarrhea frequency / (day*head)*100%) was also calculated (Kell et al., 1990). Results were expressed as mean±SD. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion rate and diarrhea rate were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (SPSS11.5).
Results and Discussion
Effects of AMPs feed additive on the growth performance in the weaned piglets
The initial weight, final weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate were shown in Table 1. Final weight of the experiment group was higher (P>0.05) than the control group but there was no significant. Additive AMPS in the significantly increased (P<0.05) the ADG by 22.2% and decreased (P<0.05) the FCR by 18.7% compared with the control group. This indicated that the AMPs supplementation in the creep feed could promote the growth of piglets and improved the economic efficiency.
Table 1. Effects of AMPs feed additive on the growth performance in weaned piglets
Mean±SD : *P<0.05, **P<0.01
Effects of AMPS feed additive on the health level in weaned piglets
The effects of AMPS feed additive on the diarrhea in weaned piglets were shown in Table 2. It was shown that AMPs supplementation can remarkably decrease (P<0.01) the diarrhea rate compared with the control group during the trial period. In addition, other indicators including the healthy, weight evenness, metal condition, resistance to the stress and appetite of piglets in the experiment group were superior to the control group. Thereby, AMPs addition had a great effect on the health improvement in the weaning piglets.
Table 2. Effect of AMPS feed additive on the health level of weaned piglets
Mean±SD : *P<0.05, **P<0.01
Many factors can affect the production and benefits of the pig farms. Any detail should not be ignored. The production of this pig farm was not so high because of the low feeding management and feed waste (lower than the average production level in large farm) in this trail. Therefore, improving the feeding management and breeding modernization were the most important for the production increased. Meanwhile, the contrast of this two groups in the same feeding pattern strongly indicated that AMPs supplementation could have a great growth and health promotion in the piglets.
The AMPs feed additive had a inhibition action on the bacterial, promoted the growth of the livestock and increased the feed utilization. AMPs was one of the green and safety feed additives because there was no residue and bacterial resistance in the organism when the animals ingested the AMPs feed additive for a long term (Qiu et al., 2002; Niu et al., 2008; Guo et al., 2008). Other results shown that AMPs can significantly improve the number of T lymphocytes in pig, promote the macrophage phagocytosis (Wang et al., 2001) and effectively increase the level of HC antibody in the sows (Pi et a., 2008). Wen et al (2001, 2004) reported that AMPs feed additives can relieve the diarrhea of piglets, which was consistent with our results in the trail. The effects of AMPs feed additive on the growth in the broiler and duck even the aquaculture were also reported (Chen et al., 2005: Huang et al., 2004). In a word, there was a great market prospects in the application of AMPs to promote the animal growth and improve the immunity with substituting the antibiotics in the feed.
Adding the AMPS to the starter feed could effectively increase the ADG and feed utilization, reduce the diarrhea rate.
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